EUROLAB facilities are equipped with a wide range of electrical testing equipment to verify the operating conditions of electronic components, assemblies and products under a variety of environmental conditions. It offers a complete turnkey solution for your electronic and electrical testing needs.
As part of a larger testing program, we have the expertise required to let you know whether it includes active monitoring or, instead, independent analysis of a component, motherboard or device. In addition to the electrical parameters of current and voltage, material properties such as resistance, capacitance and inductance can be determined.
The material feature is a dense feature of a particular solid. Quantitative properties can be used as a tool to evaluate the benefits of one material over another to assist in material selection for a particular application.
A feature may be impermeable or subject to any number of changes in its temperature, consistency or other qualities. Due to the possibility of different aspects of a particular property within a material - a natural phenomenon known as anisotropy - there are some differences in material properties.
Often, materials have properties that share qualities with foreign substances, but they act linearly over a certain range of work. Specific material properties are placed in the correct equations to predetermine the properties of a particular system.
For example, when a substance attributed to a precise temperature experiences an increase or decrease in temperature, the change of this substance can be confirmed. For the most accurate measurements, material properties are best determined by standard test methods. Many of these test methods are documented by the respective user communities and have been published through ASTM International. Some tests that fall into this category are:
Arc Resistance - The purpose of the Arc Resistance test is to make a relative distinction between solid electrical insulating materials. The ability of test samples to withstand a resistance at a high voltage, but with a weak current, close to the insulation surface. The test focuses on when tracking paths begin to form.
Dielectric Breakthrough / Strength Dielectric strength refers to the highest density of an electric field that a material can withstand without losing its composition, while Dielectric Strength refers to the lowest density of an electric field where a material is broken.
Dielectric Constant - Dielectric constant of the capacity of a substance to keep its electrical energy in proportion to the permeability of the surrounding area. When the constant concentrates but other factors remain the same, the electric force field grows in density. Under these conditions, an object of a certain weight and size can hold an electric charge for longer periods as well as larger amounts of charge. High value capacitors are among the materials that benefit from having high dielectric constants.
However, a high level of dielectric constant is not exactly an ideal condition for every substance. A material with a high dielectric constant will be more susceptible to disintegration when exposed to excessive electric fields, at least unlike substances with lower constants.
Dry air is still an example of a substance with a low dielectric constant, which makes it an ideal dielectric substance for capacitors used by transmitters of full-power radio frequencies. If the dielectric transmits an electric charge and then begins to deteriorate, the situation is only temporary. When the excess electrical energy field decreases, the air returns to the regular dielectric level. Other substances can cause permanent damage from such conditions. Examples include glass and polyethylene.
Surface Resistance - This is the ratio of DC voltage between the length and width of the surface of an object. Surface resistance is among the properties of a particular material that can be examined and evaluated to determine the total value of the material - which can be compared and contrasted with the resistivity of other materials. In general, the testing process helps in material selection.
Volume Resistance Volume resistance is a natural quality that measures how intensely a particular substance contradicts the direction of electric currents. The low level of resistivity indicates that the substance will easily allow the flow of the electric charge. The resistor unit is known as ohms, symbolized by the letter "R". If an ampere current passes through a part where the voltage can be at least one volt different, the resistance of that part is an ohmm.
If a certain voltage application is kept at a constant level, the electrical circuit in the direct current will usually be inversely proportional to the resistance. However, in the case of double resistance, the current is only half. On the other hand, if the resistance is only half, there will be twice as much current. This applies to the vast majority of AC systems operating at low frequencies, such as the circuits you'll find in homes. High-frequency AC circuits, on the contrary, often contain parts that can hold, emit, and convert energy.
Conductivity - The conductivity of a substance is the level of electricity conduction of the substance, as is the rate at which heat manages to move from one point of a particular object to another. If an ampere current passes through a part that contains a volt, that part has the conductivity of a Siemens. In most cases, when the voltage application is maintained continuously, the CD circuit will have a current relative to conductivity. If the second is two times more, there will be current. Similarly, 1/10 conductivity will be associated with 1/10 current.
Thermal Resistance Coefficient - Thermal coefficient refers to the difference in the physical structure of a substance after it enters the temperature change. Coefficients are defined for numerous processes, such as reactivity and magnetic and electrical properties of substances. If the level of resistance to electrical currents in a material rises in the light of elevated temperature, this is called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC).
Materials that tend to be useful in engineering often increase with temperature, i.e. high coefficients. As the temperature in high coefficient materials increases, electrical resistance increases. The temperature limits can be applied to PTC materials at the set input voltages, thereby eliminating the risk of greater electrical resistance in the event of a sudden increase in temperatures.
When the electrical resistance of a material decreases due to an increase in temperature, it is a matter of negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Materials that benefit a large number of engineering processes typically show a rapid decline as temperatures drop. In other words, they tend to be low coefficients. When the temperature increases, electrical resistance decreases in materials with low co-efficiency. One of the main differences between NTC and PTC materials is the self-limitation of PTC materials.
Spread Factor - Measured to determine the inefficiency of the insulation material of a capacitor. In most cases, the propagation factor is used to measure the temperature loss that occurs when a dielectric or other insulator comes into contact with a different electric field. A capacitor usually consists of an insulator surrounded by double metal plates. When the distribution of a particular piece of material is low, this usually means that efficiency is better.
Dispersion in the material is usually measured by two tests: one is surrounded by metal plates, and the other is without plate. Depending on the process at hand, other test methods may be applied, including the use of chambers with varying electrode arrangements.
For a dielectric material, sliding of molecular bonds through exposure to the electric field will inevitably consume a significant amount of energy. As a result, it is impossible to recover energy after the material is removed from the field. Sometimes, the loss factor is called alternating power factor - especially when induced currents do not affect a capacitive circuit with an alternating current. Its loss is usually expressed by a zero-digit power factor.
In order to calculate the power losses, often bumps are made between the voltage and voltage of the current. With air, the dispersion value is usually nothing, but the loss value is so small that it does not matter even in most cases.
When a particular material is selected for an electrical circuit, it is very important to know about the nature of the energy loss. The consumption factor is used in various daily processes, including the concept applied to the microwave oven of food. The microwave oven generates heat for cooking by alternating electric fields, causing the water molecules to be polarized and depolarized by energy loss.
HAI (High Current Arc Ignition) - High Current Arc Ignition (HAI) performance is expressed as the number of arc breakage exposures required to ignite a material when applied (standardized to the electrode type and shape and electrical circuit), arc fracture exposure required to ignite a material when applied at a standard rate Returns the number.
In addition to IPC and CAF tests, EUROLAB has a wide range of instruments for accurately measuring sample performance. Such measurements are useful for comparative analysis to verify compliance of samples to applicable standards or to determine if there is a change in sample performance after any environmental testing:
CAF (Conductive Anodic Filament) CAF formation is a well-studied phenomenon driven by chemical, humidity, voltage and mechanical means. It is characterized by a sudden loss of insulation resistance occurring internally in the PCB. CAF dendrites can occur between adjacent Overlay openings (PTH) or between a overlay open hole and a line on the PCB. Coating chemistry, material consistency, damage caused by multiple soldering steps, and overvoltages (beyond designed voltages) accelerate the start of the CAF. The CAF mechanism is the electrochemical transport of ions across the electrical potential between the anode and cathode.
SIR (Surface Insulation Resistance) –SIR is defined as the resistance that occurs when the materials made for insulation are surrounded by earthing devices and electrical tools under certain atmospheric conditions. The SIR test is performed to determine whether a product or application can withstand failure due to leakage currents or short circuits. High humidity conditions - preferably about 85 ° C / 85% Relative Humidity and 40 ° C / 90% - are ideal for SIR testing. Intermittent measurements of the insulation resistance (IR) are also taken during these tests, usually for the benefit of printed circuit boards and assemblies.
ESS (Environmental Stress Screening) Environmental Stress scanning is an important step in the design cycle of electronic systems, especially these systems shrink in size and increase complexity to meet the increasing customer demand for low power, portable, high quality devices. Providing high operating reliability and error-free operation in any working environment requires careful product design; at this time, you need to consider several factors. ESS is a useful process that reveals product weaknesses and allows you to make improvements to the design. Correction of faults detected during the internal testing is cheaper than equipment malfunctions in the field.
LLCR (Low Level Contact Resistance) - The resistance of a material is divided into two categories: internal and electrical, and contact resistance corresponds to the second. Other terms used to describe this process include "transition resistance" and "interface resistance".
Voltage Drop - Explains how to cut off the energy provided in the voltage source when electric currents pass through the circuit not supplying voltage to the circuit. There are two categories of voltage drop: desired and undesirable. The desired category includes drops that pass through elements that play an active role in a circuit, while unwanted includes drops for connectors, contacts, and conductors. For example, a portable heater can be operated with cables with 0.2 ohm resistance. If the heater has a resistance of 10 ohms, the general circuit resistance will be 2%, so it represents the amount of voltage lost in the wire. When a voltage drop is too extreme, it gives poor performance from an electrical device and can also cause damage.
Resistance Resistance with an electric conductor - any substance that electricity can flow - is known as the level of difficulty the current faces when passing through a substance.
Resistance is the opposite of conductivity, which expresses the unobstructed transition of currents. Conductivity is related to the amount of flow available with a pressure force, while resistance is also related to the amount of pressure required to enable flow. Therefore, electrical resistance is conceptually similar to mechanical friction. With the exception of superconductors, each type of material shows a certain level of resistance.
When it comes to cables and other parts, the most common factors that determine resistance and conductivity are temperature, material and shape. For example, currents face greater resistance than short and thick ones along copper wires that are long and thin. The flow of electric currents can be compared with the passage of water, where the pressure drop that sends water through a pipe is very similar to the voltage drop that sends a current through a wire.
The driving force behind a flow of current through a resistor is the voltage drop that is used to distinguish the voltages on the opposite sides of a resistor. Similarly, when water passes through a pipe, it is caused by the pressure difference between the opposite pipe ends, unlike the actual pressure.
RLC (Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance) An RLC electrical circuit consists of a resistor, inductor and capacitor connected to the tandem or array, but not necessarily connected in the order of shortening. RLCs have many uses in terms of release. TV and radio receivers use RLC circuits to isolate certain frequency ranges from radio waves. A problem that sometimes arises is inductor resistance, which may be problematic due to the inductor makeup of wire coils.
IR (Insulation Resistance) Insulation resistance (IR) tests, alternately referred to as Meggers, use DC voltage to calculate the insulation's resistance in kilohm, megohm, and gigohm. In low voltage equipment, IRs generally use 250Vdc, 500Vdc or 1.000Vdc DC applications. In high voltage products, generally <600V and 2,500Vdc and 5,000Vdc voltages are applied.
By measuring the resistance, the IR test reveals the condition of the insulation seated between the conductive parts - higher resistance means better insulation. Although the most ideal result is infinite resistance, insulators have defects and leakage currents will ultimately determine the set resistance values. IR tests are particularly advantageous because DC voltages have no detrimental effect on insulation.
DWV (Dielectric Withstanding Voltage) AC / DC Hi-pot - This is an electrical test applied to products and parts to measure the strength of the insulation, helping to determine the potential for a product to operate reliably under a variety of conditions. The resistance test is carried out in high voltage direct or alternating currents at power or resonance frequencies. The test typically takes a minute, but the time, such as the voltage ratio, may vary depending on the needs of the product. Test standards vary between switchgear, military devices, high voltage cables and benchtop electronic equipment.
CTI (Comparative Monitoring Index) - Comparative monitoring index (CTI) is used to evaluate the relative resistance of insulation materials to monitoring.
CTI was expressed on the material as the voltage that caused tracing after 50 drops of 0.1% ammonium chloride solution. The results of testing the nominal 3 mm thickness represent the performance of the material at any thickness.
ECM (Electrochemical Migration) ve EM (Electromigration) - Electrochemical Migration and Electromigration (EM or ECM) testing method provides a tool to evaluate the trend of surface electrochemical migration. This test method can be used to evaluate soldering materials or processes. Electromigration is the transport of material resulting from the gradual movement of ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conductive electrons and emitted metal atoms. The effect is important in applications where high direct current densities are used, such as microelectronics and related structures.
EUROLAB has several monitoring options to continuously record the vital input and output parameters of your sample during testing to ensure continuous operation:
Using a wide variety of AC and DC and power supplies and loads, we can make sure that you provide the correct input power and provide proper loading to simulate the active operation of your product:
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