Chemical testing and analysis encompasses a wide range of services from ion chromatography to high-voltage arc tracking. With the help of international guidance standards, chemical tests provide information on the chemical composition of the product material, while ensuring compliance with the legislation.
International organizations offer standards for products in many industries:
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Accredited by IPC (Association of Electronic Connection Manufacturers), is a trade organization dedicated to standardizing the assembly and manufacturing requirements of electronic equipment. The entire electronics manufacturing industry implements IPC standards, including IPC-A-610, Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies.
ASTM International (American Society of Testing and Materials)is another standard agency that issues technical standards for materials, products, and services. ASTM offers over 12 consensus standards worldwide, some of which are mandatory in certain jurisdictions.
United States Department of Defenseused to ensure products meet certain requirements MIL-STD or MIL-SPEC It also provides the so-called standards. Defense contractors use not only these standards, but also technical organizations dedicated to high quality and reliability.
ULis an independent security science company that provides standards for testing products, components and materials, as well as evaluating environmentally sustainable products.
The following are a series of chemical testing approaches that can assist in evaluating your product components. Standards such as IPC and ASTM drive every approach.
With the growing demand for metal and alloy production, security and reliability requirements have never been more important. Below are some of the methods used to test the alloy composition.
Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assembly Requirements for IPC J-STD-001 have become the accepted standard in electronic assembly and soldered electricity production. The standard sets out materials, methods and verification criteria to produce high quality soldered interconnections. The standard provides guidance in component placement, placement, handling, bonding and joining techniques, as well as cleaning before coating and encapsulation.
IPC J-STD-001 sets standards for electronic products that offer continuous performance and longevity, and products that require high performance due to the importance of continuous function, such as in demanding end-use environments or life support machines.
The electronics industry also maintains standards that stipulate requirements and test methods for soldering materials. IPC J-STD-006 sets the terminology requirements and test methods for electronic grade soldering alloys. It is a quality standard that does not aim to verify the performance of a material in the production process. Solder alloys are classified according to alloy composition, impurity level, solder form and dimensional properties of solder form.
To test the performance of a material, it may be necessary to thermally bond the material between the substrates of interest. IPC-TM-650, Method 126.96.36.199 provides proposed procedures for pre-bonding and bonding anisotropically conductive films (ACF).
Solder mask materials should prevent the formation of solder balls, solder build-up, solder bridging, and physical damage to the printed plate substrate. The materials should also reduce electromigration and other forms of harmful or conductive growth.
ASTM 543offers standardization of the relative resistance of various plastics to typical chemical reagents.
IPC-SM-840describes the method to obtain the most reliable information about solder mask material with minimal test redundancy. The IPC-SM-840 provides requirements for the evaluation of solder mask materials, the suitability of solder mask materials, and the quality assessment in conjunction with the appropriate test substrate and standard printed plate system of the solder mask. However, IPC-SM-840 does not test compatibility between solder mask materials and post-solder products.
IPC-SM-4101provides technical properties for basic materials (laminate or prepreg) for hard and multilayer printed boards. Technical specifications include nominal laminate thickness, metal coating type, nominal weight / thickness and thickness tolerance (laminate).
IPC-SM-650determines methods for testing electronic and electrical components such as basic environmental, physical and electrical tests.
Method 2.3.2 tests the chemical resistance of flexible printed board materials and exposes the material to hazardous chemicals to produce data.
Method 2.3.3 tests the chemical resistance of insulating materials.
Method 2.3.4 tests the chemical resistance of marking dyes and inks.
Method 188.8.131.52 tests the resistance of dielectric materials used in printed circuit boards to methylene chloride.
The printed circuit board and cleaning tests in the assembly determine the amount of contaminants. Using different analytical techniques for cleaning testing can help detect unexpected and unknown contaminants.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.25 tests are used to detect and measure ionizable surface contaminants by resistivity of solvent extract (ROSE).
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.28proposes an ionic analysis for circuit boards using ion chromatography.
IPC-TM-650, Method 184.108.40.206Measures the level of chloride, bromide and fluoride in a solder flux or paste using Ion Chromatography (IC).
IPC-TM-650, Method 220.127.116.11Measures the level of anionic and cationic residues on the surface of printed plates that are not filled using Ion Chromatography (IC).
When guaranteeing chemical composition or products, it is often vital to verify this composition and check impurities. IPC J-STD-004 standard stipulates requirements for the classification and characterization of fluxes for high quality solder interconnections.
The standard is designed to classify tin / lead and lead-free soldering flux materials required to produce electronic metallurgical interconnections for printed circuit board assembly. Flux materials include liquid flux, paste flux, solder paste, soldering cream and flux-coated soldering wires.
Flammability test evaluates the flammability of materials used in electrical appliances. Flammability Safety Standard of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Tools UL94creates flame classifications to distinguish the combustion properties of a material when exposed to test flames. The test programs determine the tendency of a flame to spread or deflate, as well as the ignition resistance of the plastic.
ASTM D635proposes a test method to determine the burning rate or burning time of plastics in the horizontal position.
ASTM D2863provides guidance on measuring the minimum oxygen concentration in the mixture of flowing oxygen and nitrogen to support flaming.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.8describes the procedure for determining the relative flammability of organic films and reinforced compositions by measuring the minimum oxygen and nitrogen required to support combustion.
IPC-TM-650, Method 18.104.22.168provides test methods to determine the degree of flame resistance of flexible printed cables.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.9Outlines a method for determining the degree of flame resistance of laminates less than 0,5 mm.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.10proposes a method for determining the degree of flame resistance of a laminated or uncoated laminate.
IPC-TM-650, Method 22.214.171.124evaluates the relative flame resistance properties of a permanent solder mask coating on printed cable laminates.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.29proposes a test procedure necessary to determine whether the flexible flat cable is flame retardant.
Lead detection remains an important part of chemical testing - these tests should be able to test lead trace elements in plastics, paints, coatings, composites, soldering and other materials. Some of the methods used to test lead content are below.
ASTM E1613addresses the collection and preparation of samples (dust, soil, air particles and dried chips) obtained during mitigation of lead hazards from buildings. The method can use inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS).
CPSC-CH-E1002-08provides the standard operating procedure to determine the total amount of lead in non-metal products.
CPSC-CH-E1003-09.1provides standard operating procedures for determining the electrode wire in paint and other surface coatings.
Some ionic substances can cause corrosion and even electrical performance problems. Ion chromatography separates and detects these trace ionic substances to determine the quality of molecular materials and minerals in addition to the purity of food, soil and water.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.28proposes an ionic analysis for circuit boards using ion chromatography.
IPC-TM-650, Method 126.96.36.199measures the level of chloride, bromide and fluoride in a soldering flux or paste using ion chromatography.
IPC-TM-650, Method 188.8.131.52measures the level of anionic and cationic residues on the surface of printed plates that are not filled using ion chromatography.
Flow purification chemistry should clean all flows and pastes in soldered printed circuit board groups. IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.30 outlines a test method for measuring pH in anhydrous fluorocarbon azeotropes and mixtures for cleaning and reflux equipment.
Gold coatings are usually indicated for detachable electrical connectors and contacts of other devices. Although electrodeposites are also used in contact metals, they are the most common gold forms used in contacts.
Gold is a popular choice for electrical connectors because of its resistance to the formation of insulating oxide films that interfere with reliable contact operation. Although tolerable porosity levels depend on the severity of the substrate, reliability of the contact process and design factors for the contact device, the porosity and other defects in the coating should be minimal.
ASTM B735sets standards for electrodeposites and coated metals, especially used in electrical contacts, to determine porosity in gold coatings. The test method is very sensitive and can detect almost all porosity and other defects in gold coatings.
IPC-TM-650, method 2.3.24provides standards for determining the porosity of the gold plating on both copper and nickel surfaces.
The purity test helps to determine the purity of the materials used in electronics.
IPC-TM-650, method 2.3.15proposes an electrogravimetric method to determine the purity of the copper foil or coating.
MIL-PRF-31032determines the performance requirements used for printed circuit boards or printed cable boards. The specifications are designed to provide printed plate manufacturers with the flexibility to apply best commercial practices while offering products that meet their military performance needs.
UL 746Asets standards for polymeric materials. Requirements include short-term procedures for the evaluation of materials used in electrical end products for certain applications. Products at risk of fire, electric shock, or injury should be evaluated according to these requirements.
ROSE testis a quality control method used in the manufacture of printed cable panels and printed cable groups. The test provides an assessment of general printed circuit board / assembly cleaning. This is an important test that needs to be done because electronics goes through chemical and mechanical processes that can now stress components. The ROSE test should be able to identify failures or unwanted residues from the manufacturing process.
The ROSE test has been used for decades and is the only cleaning test that can be trusted as a process control tool in a production line environment. It is also useful for the ability to show gross levels of gross conductive materials.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.25is the industry standard for such analyzes: It provides guidance on detecting and measuring ionizable surface contaminants by the resistivity of the solvent extract (ROSE).
IPC-6012Bprovides guidance on the performance characteristics of rigid printed boards.
IPC-6013Cprovides guidance on performance characteristics for flexible printed cards.
IPC-6018provides detailed performance criteria for high frequency printed circuit boards.
IPC J-STD-001Fprovides requirements for the production of soldered electrical and electronic assemblies.
Solderability testmeasures the weight and speed at which the molten solder rises above the various components. Below are some of the methods used to test solderability.
IPC J-STD-002proposes methods to evaluate the solderability of electrical component cables, terminals, solid cables, standard cables, nails and nails. Solderability assessments verify that the solderability of the component ends and terminations meet requirements and storage has no adverse effect on the ability to solder to an interconnected substrate.
J-STD-002 can also be used to verify that metallized terminations remain intact during assembly soldering processes.
IPC J-STD-003recommends test methods for printed sheets with guidance on the solderability of printed sheet surface conductors, connection areas and through-holes.
As discussed above, the IPC-SM-840D identifies the methods of obtaining the most information with the greatest test excess on the hardened permanent solder mask material.
There are a number of additional tests to evaluate the quality of solder paste.
IPC J-STD-005provides general requirements for testing solder pastes used to make high-quality electronic interconnections. The standard defines the properties of the solder paste consisting of solder powder and flux of solder paste. Solder powders are classified according to the shape and size distribution of the particles.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.4.35determines vertical and horizontal collapse for soldering pastes.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.4.44proposes an adhesion test for solder pastes.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.4.46provides indication of the activity of wave soldering fluxes and solder paste.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.4.47evaluates the stickiness of soft solder flux residues.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.4.48The core wire and strip measures the spitting properties of the solder.
Viscosity measures fluid flow properties for quality control purposes. As discussed, the IPC-TM-650 creates methods for testing electronic and electrical parts, including basic environmental, physical and electrical tests.
Method 2.4.34 specifies procedures for determining the viscosity of the solder paste in the range of 300.000 to 1.600.000 centipuezes.
Viscosity to determine the viscosity of the solder paste.
IPC-TM-650, Method 2.4.34 determines vertical and horizontal collapse for solder pastes.
IPC-TM-650, Method 184.108.40.206 determines the viscosity of the solder paste in the range of 50.000 to 300.000 centipoises
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